The Department of Physics offers a program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree. An undergraduate minor is also available.

The goals of the Physics program are to:

- provide students with a solid foundation in classical and modern physics;
- develop skills which enable students to enter careers in business, teaching, research, and technology;
- prepare students for graduate study in physics.

Courses offered at the 100 level are for non-majors, and can be used to fulfill General Education program requirements, and require minimal math preparation.

Students should also be aware of the University requirements for the Bachelor's degree. All students must complete a minimum of 40 semester hours at the 300 level.

*All 300-level courses in Physics are offered in the evening.*

Facilities available to students include computer workstations, a BEOWULF supercomputer, a scanning tunneling microscope, a wide array of sophisticated electronic, nuclear, and optical instruments, a Mössbauer effect apparatus, a fully equipped cryogenics laboratory, a fully equipped optics laboratory including a Spiricon Laser Beam Analyzer, a vacuum laboratory, and a 14” reflecting telescope. Students are encouraged to undertake independent projects of their own choosing.

Qualified undergraduate majors and minors are eligible to apply for a limited number of tuition waivers, scholarships, and part-time jobs offered. Please contact the Physics advisor for information and application forms.

Newly admitted students-at-large, and all entering freshmen and transfer students who intend to major in physics must consult the Physics advisor or the Physics Department chair before their first registration.

Paulo Acioli, Ph.D., Professor, Chair

Gregory Anderson, Ph.D., Professor

Paul J. Dolan, Jr., Ph.D., Professor

Orin M. Harris, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

Sudha Srinivas, Ph.D., Professor

**PHYS-103. The Universe:Past, Present And Future. 3 Hours.**

An introductory-level Astronomy/Astrophysics course for non-science majors requiring no previous college-level science background. The evolution of the universe: Big Bang creation, expansion of the universe, formation, development and properties of stars, endings of the universe; as well as the history of our understanding of the universe from the perspectives of culture, philosophy science. Knoledge of basic algebra skills is assumed.

**PHYS-104. Energy. 3 Hours.**

A course for non-science majors requiring no previous college-level mathematics or science background. Physics and its application to the problems of energy consumption and production are discussed. Topics include the need for nuclear reactors and the implications thereof, the dumping of nuclear waste at sea and alternatives, better energy sources and energy depletion, the motion of pollutants through the environment, and other related topics.

**PHYS-108. Physics Concepts For Educators. 4 Hours.**

A laboratory oriented course that integrates concepts from geometry, algebra and trigonometry. Central concepts of physics (the laws of mechanics and electricity, the properties of light, atoms and nuclei) and how they are applied in the modern world (rockets, electric motors, optical instruments, automobiles, fuel cells, alternative fuels, stationary i.e. power plant and non-stationary i.e. aircraft, green technology etc.) are investigated. Issues of smart materials, celestial mining, nanotechnology, quantum computing and other contemporary critical technologies may be investigated. Discussion may include topics and concepts related to robotics, kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies and electrostatics, electric fields, electric potentials, currents, magnetic fields, wave motion. Basic concepts of geology, meteorology, oceanography and the solar system may be threaded throughout. Course content is aligned to the National Science Teachers Association and the dimensions of the Next Generation of Science Standards. PHYS-108 is linked to MATH-280.

**PHYS-110. Physics In Everyday Life. 3 Hours.**

A laboratory oriented course for the non-science major. Central concepts of physics (the laws of mechanics and electricity, the properties of light, atoms and nuclei) and how they are applied in the modern world (rockets, electric motors, optical instruments, automobiles, toys, etc.). Knowledge of basic algebra skills is assumed. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours.

**PHYS-200. Introduction To College Physics. 3 Hours.**

**Prerequisite: ** MATH-106 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-201. College Physics I. 3 Hours.**

Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies: Newton's laws, energy, momentum and angular momentum. Physics of fluids, vibration and sound. Heat and thermodynamics.**Prerequisite: ** MATH-185 minimum grade of D or MATH-106 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-201L. College Physics I With Lab. 5 Hours.**

This is the second course of a two-term algebra based lecture and laboratory sequence intended for non-physics majors, PHYS-201L and PHYS-202L. Kinematics and dynamics of a particle and systems of particles, momentum, energy, angular momentum, conservation laws, applications to problems involving collisions, oscillatory motion and motion in a gravitational field, rigid body motion, temperature, heat, the laws of thermodynamics, application to thermodynamic engines, and ideal gases are discussed. Lecture: 4 hrs. Lab: 2 hrs.

**PHYS-202. College Physics II. 3 Hours.**

Electrostatics, Coulomb's law, electric fields, electric potentials, currents, Ohm's law, magnetism, magnetic fields, the forces on or due to moving charges, induction, electromagnetic radiation, wave motion, physical and geometrical optics.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-201 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-202L. College Physics II With Lab. 5 Hours.**

This is the second course of a two-term algebra based lecture and laboratory sequence intended for non-physics majors, PHYS-201L and PHYS-202L. Electrostatics, Coulomb's law, electric fields, electric potentials, currents, Ohm's law, magnetism, magnetic fields, the forces on or due to moving charges, induction, electromagnetic radiation, wave motion, physical and geometrical optics will be discussed. Time permitting concepts in modern physics such as special relativity, quantum physics and radioactivity will also be discussed. Lecture: 4 hrs. Lab: 2 hrs.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-201 minimum grade of C or PHYS-201L minimum grade of C or PHYS-206 minimum grade of C or PHYS-206L minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-203. Physics I Laboratory. 1 Hour.**

Laboratory course covering the subject matter of Physic I, and meant to be taken concurrently.

**PHYS-204. Physics II Laboratory. 1 Hour.**

Laboratory course covering the subject matter of Physic II, and meant to be taken concurrently.

**PHYS-206. University Physics I. 3 Hours.**

This is the first term of a three-term sequence intended for students majoring in physics, chemistry, or mathematics, PHYS-206, PHYS-207, PHYS-215. kinematics and dynamics of a paticle and systems of particles, momentum, energy, angular momentum, conservation laws, applications t problems involving collisions, oscillatory motion and motion in a gravitational field, rigid body motion, temperature, heat, the laws of thermodynamics, application to thermodynamic engines and ideal gases are discussed.**Prerequisite: ** ((MATH-107 minimum grade of D or MATH-187 minimum grade of D).

**PHYS-206L. University Physics I With Lab. 5 Hours.**

This is the first term of a two-term calculus based lecture and laboratory sequence intended for students majoring in physics, biology, chemistry, earth science or mathematics, PHYS-206L and PHYS-207L. Kinematics and dynamics of a particle and systems of particles, momentum, energy, angular momentum, conservation laws, applications to problems involving collisions, oscillatory motion and motion in a gravitational field, rigid body motion, temperature, heat, the laws of thermodynamics, application to thermodynamic engines, and ideal gases are discussed. Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 2 hrs.**Prerequisite: ** MATH-187 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-207. University Physics II. 3 Hours.**

Charges, Coulomb's and Gauss's laws, conductors and dielectrics, Ohm's law, magnetic fields, Ampere's Law, motion of charges in magnetic field, Faraday's law, inductance, simple L.R.C. circuits, magnetic properties of matter, electromegnetic waves, kinematics of wave motion, reflection, interference and diffraction.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-206 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-207L. University Physics II With Lab. 5 Hours.**

This is the second course of a two-term calculus based lecture and laboratory sequence intended for students majoring in physics, biology, chemistry, earth science or mathematics. Charges, Coulomb's and Gauss's laws, conductors and dielectrics, Ohm's law, magnetic fields, Ampere's law, motion of charges in a magnetic field, Faraday's law, inductance, simple L.R.C. circuits, magnetic properties of matter, electromagnetic waves, kinematics of wave motion, reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction are discussed. Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 2 hrs.**Prerequisites: ** PHYS-201 minimum grade of C and MATH-187 minimum grade of C or ((PHYS-206 minimum grade of C or PHYS-206L minimum grade of C).

**PHYS-211. Physics I Seminar. 1 Hour.**

Enrighment Seminar accompanying PHYS-201 or PHYS-206. Students do problem solving in collaborative groups on material derived from and supplementing University Physics I or College Physics I to gain a deeper understanding of concepts and applications.

**PHYS-212. Physics II Seminar. 1 Hour.**

Enrichment Seminar accompanying PHYS-202 or PHYS-207. Students do problem solving in collaborative groups on material derived from and supplementing University Physics II or College Physics II to gain a deeper understanding of concepts and applications.

**PHYS-215. Physics III. 4 Hours.**

Introduction to the physics of the twentieth century, including application to related fields such as biology, chemistry, earth science, and engineering. Fundamental concepts of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical physics as applied to atomic, molecular, nuclear and solid state physics.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-202 minimum grade of D or PHYS-207 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-300. Interdisciplinary Seminar In STEM. 2 Hours.**

This course uses a hands-on approach to modern inquiry-based research problems and techniques in the physical and computational sciences. The course is structured around a series of modular problem-based exercises, covering topics from the fields of Chemistry, Computer Science, Earth Science, Mathematics and Physics, and is designed to provide the content and pedagogical background for students to be successful peer leaders. The cross-disciplinary modules will draw connections between scientific disciplines, and showcase common research tools and techniques used in the sciences. The workshop will also incorporate discussions on a range of topics, from scientific ethics, scientific methodology and error analysis.**Prerequisite: ** MATH-185 minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-301. Independent Study In Physics. 1 Hour.**

Research, laboratory work, study or tutorial in a specific area of physics under faculty supervison.

**PHYS-302. Independent Study In Physics. 2 Hours.**

(See PHYS-301 for description.).

**PHYS-303. Independent Study In Physics. 3 Hours.**

(See PHYS-301 for description.).

**PHYS-304. Physics For Elementary School Teachers I. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-305. Modern Physics I. 3 Hours.**

This course covers the advances made in the discipline of physics during the first half of the twentieth century that continue to drive the technologies we use today. Topics that will be covered include an introduction to the theory of relativity, elementary quantum theory, and its applications to atomic, molecular and nuclear physics.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-207 minimum grade of C or PHYS-202 minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-306A. Modern Physics II. 3 Hours.**

Modern Physics II is the second part of a two course sequence covering advances made in physics during the twentieth century. This content includes aspects of the general theory of relativity, cosmology, thermal physics, and applications of elementary quantum theory to atomic physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, particle physics and condensed matter physics. Prerequisites: PHYS-305: Modern Physics I.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-305 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-307. Writing Intensive Program: Modern Physics Lab. 3 Hours.**

An introduction to intermediate-levl experimental methods, scientific writing, and investigations which provided the experimental foundation for the major revolutions in 20th century physics. Students will perform classic modern physics experiments which demonstrate quantization in nature, wave particle duality, and the properties and interactions of fundamental particles. Students will present written results of their investigations in a variety of formats common in the discipline.**Prerequisites: ** ENGL-101 minimum grade of C and PHYS-305 minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-308. Introductory Mathematical Physics. 3 Hours.**

Vector and tensor analysis, matrices and matrix algebra, ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients; Fourier series, introduction to complex variables.**Prerequisites: ** MATH-203 minimum grade of D and PHYS-207 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-309. Fortran And Numerical Analysis For Scientists. 3 Hours.**

Introduction to the use of computers in solving scientific problems; Fortran programming is described and applied to several fundamental problems.**Prerequisite: ** MATH-202 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-311. Mechanics I. 3 Hours.**

Statics of particles and rigid bodies, kinematics and dynamics of particles (including damped and forced harmonic oscillators), work and energy, linear and angular momentum, conservation laws, dynamics of rigid bodies, introduction to special relativity.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-308 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-321. Electricity And Magnetism I. 3 Hours.**

Coulomb's law, electric fields and electrostatic potential, Gauss's law, Poisson's equation, capacitance, dielectric media, current density, simple circuits, magnetic fields, Lorentz force, magnetic media, induction, Ampere's law, inductance, Maxwell's equations.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-308 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-324. Advanced Classical Physics. 3 Hours.**

Introduction to advanced topics in classical physics in preparation for the study of modern physics. Topics inlcude the Lagrangian Formalism of classical mechanics and its application to the theories of planetary motion, small oscillations, rigid body mechanics; Maxwell's equations, radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves, the theory of special relativity.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-311 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-330. Intermediate Physics Laboratory. 3 Hours.**

An introduction to scientific measurement procedures, with special attention paid to the examination of error and uncertainty and to certain widely used experimental techniques and their application. Techniques used include those in optics, electronics and atomic, solid state and nuclear physics. Experiments are chosen according to the individual student's needs and interests. This course may be taken up to three times.

**PHYS-331. Optics. 4 Hours.**

The fundamental principle of geometrical and physical optics and their application to the design of modern instruments as well as atomic spectra, properties of photos and lasers. Principles discussed in the lecture will be explored in various lab exercises. Lecture 2 hours, Lab 4 hours.**Prerequisites: ** PHYS-204 minimum grade of D and ((PHYS-202 minimum grade of D or PHYS-207 minimum grade of D).

**PHYS-332. Electronics. 4 Hours.**

Laboratory and lecture covering both the basic structure of various electronic components, and their use and behavior in circuits. The course begins with linear elements, such as resistors, inductiors and capacitors and proceeds through various semiconductor devices, diodes, transistors and operational amplifiers and culminates with the structure and use of logic circuits. Major emphasis is placed on laboratory work where the properties and interactions of various circuits are investigated. Lecture 2 hours, lab 4 hours.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-204 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-333. Vibration And Sound. 3 Hours.**

**Prerequisites: ** ((PHYS-201 minimum grade of D or PHYS-206 minimum grade of D) and PHYS-203 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-335. Thermodynamics And Kinetic Theory. 3 Hours.**

Thermodynamic systems; pressure and temperature; ideal gas laws; heat, work and energy; entropy; kinetic theory.**Prerequisites: ** PHYS-206 minimum grade of D and MATH-202 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-336. Quantum Mechanics. 3 Hours.**

This course provides an introduction to Quantum Mechanics and is intended for physics majors/minors, and math or chemistry majors. The knowledge base covered is an essential foundation for students seeking to understand physical phenomenon at a microscopic level where particles are governed by the laws of quantum physics. The statistical formulation of quantum mechanics is introduced and the Schrodinger equation applied to problems in quantum mechanics including the hydrogen atom and many-particle systems.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-215 minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-337. Modern Physics Laboratory. 2 Hours.**

A series of experiments chosen according to each student's needs and interests in the fields of optics, electronics and atomic, nuclear and solid state physics.

**PHYS-338. Quantum Mechanics II. 3 Hours.**

This second course in quantum mechanics is intended for Physics majors who seek to build a solid background in the applications of quantum mechanics. It builds on the foundations introduced in Quantum Mechanics and covers applications of exact and approximate methods in quantum mechanics to real physical systems.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-336 minimum grade of C.

**PHYS-344. Introduction To Solid State Physics. 3 Hours.**

Crystal strucutre, crystal bonding, thermal properties of solids, dielectric properties, free electron model of metals, band theory of solids, magnetism, superconductivity, current applications.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-336 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-350. Field Experiences In Physics. 3 Hours.**

Practical experience in industrial or government physics laboratories under the joint supervision of the department and the laboratory. There are six hours of field experience required per week. This course may be taken up to three times.

**PHYS-361. Materials I:Structural, Mechanical And Thermal Properties. 3 Hours.**

An introductory course on the properties of materials for students in all areas of science and technology. Topics include structural, thermal and mechanical properties of metals, alloys, ceramics and plastics, and their explanation in terms of molecular and atomic properties. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-215 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-362. Materials II:Electric And Optical Properties. 3 Hours.**

Companion course to Material I with primary emphasis on the elctronic properties of materials and their industrial use. Topics include conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity, optical and infra-red properties. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours.**Prerequisites: ** PHYS-202 minimum grade of D and MATH-202 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-363. Mechanical Design And Machine Shop Practice I. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-365. Microprocessor Electronics. 4 Hours.**

The course acquaints the students with the basics of microprocessor technology, both from the point of view of understanding the theory of operation, and in learning to program and use these devices to accomplish a given task. The Motorola 6800 is the principal example, and each student has access to a microprocessor trainer for practical lab experiences. Interfacing microprocessors to each other and to the outside world is included, and the course culminates with each student completing a mjor interfacing project. Lecture 2 hours, lab 4 hours.

**PHYS-366. Communication Electronics. 3 Hours.**

The course covers tuned circuits, radio frequency amplifiers, intermeidate frequency amplifiers, cavity resonators and U.H.F. amplifiers, modulation, detection, R.F. powe amplifiers, transmitters, transmission lines, antennas, television and special topics in communication electronics, including digital methods and telemetry. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours.**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-332 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-367. Transducer And Special Purpose Electronics. 4 Hours.**

Lecture and laboratory on the characteristics of devices which convert physical quantities such as heat, light, motion and sound into electrical signal. This includes both the practical aspects of using such devices and the intrinsic physical properties which make their use possible. Sensors used include thermistors, thermopiles, microphones, solar cells, and piezoelectric/ pyroelectric films. The course culminates with each student doing a major project, which may include computer interfacing to the transducers. Lecture 2 hours, lab 4 hours.

**PHYS-369. Instrumentation Electronics. 4 Hours.**

Lecture and laboratory course on the properties and uses of electronic scientific instruments used in making physical measurements, including computer interfacing. The instruments are studied from input transducer to final output. A major emphasis is placed on laboratory work, where actual instrumentation circuits are built and tested. The course culminates with each student building an actual scientific instrument. Lecture 2 hours, Lab 4 hours.

**PHYS-391. Astrophysics. 3 Hours.**

An introduction to such topics in astrophysics as the formation, structure, evolution, and death of planets, stars, clusters, galaxies, the universe (Big Bang), and other edoteric objects such as black holes, neutron stars and quasars. Significant applications of physics and mathematics is assumed.

**PHYS-392. Beyond The Cosmos' Creation. 3 Hours.**

Modern theories for the development of the universe from the Planck Time through the Radiation era and Matter era, to the possible end scenerios, as well as pertinent experimental evidence; Hubble's Law; the Big Bang; the inflationary Big Bang; the evolution of the universe with time and temperature; is the universe open or cloed; Dark Mass?; current developments.**Prerequisites: ** PHYS-215 minimum grade of D and PHYS-311 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-400. Introduction To Quantum Mechanics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-401. Advanced Experimental Physics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-402. Atomic Physics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-403. Solid State Physics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-404. Advanced Electronics For Scientists. 3 Hours.**

**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-393 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-405. Elementary Particles. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-406. Statistical Mechanics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-407. Relativity And Gravitation. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-408. Independent Study In Physics. 3 Hours.**

**PHYS-409. Thesis Seminar-Physics. 6 Hours.**

**PHYS-410. Electrodynamics. 3 Hours.**

**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-323 minimum grade of D.

**PHYS-411. Classical Dynamics. 3 Hours.**

**Prerequisite: ** PHYS-312 minimum grade of D.